Diagnosis

Accuracy of pressure plate kinetic asymmetry indices and their correlation with visual gait assessment scores in lame and nonlame dogs

Summary:

“To determine the accuracy of pressure plate kinetic asymmetry indices (ASIs) for diagnosis of unilateral hind limb lameness in dogs and their correlation with visual gait assessment (VGA) scores.”

Conclusion:

“Results indicated that ASIs of PVF and VI deter- mined via analysis of pressure plate measurements were reliable indicators of clinical lame- ness in dogs, but the ASI of PVP was not. The ASI of PCA is an interesting new variable for assessment of limb loading symmetry.”

Author & Journal:Oosterlinck, Maarten, et al, Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 2011

Co-existence of ununited anconeal process and fragmented medial coronoid process of the ulna in the dog

Summary:

To determine the incidence of fragmented medial coronoid process of the ulna in dogs with ununited anconeal process. The efficacy of presurgical radiography to diagnose the co-existence of these diseases was also investigated.

Conclusion:

Seventy-two per cent of the dogs were German shepherd dogs. In 25 joints (16 per cent) a fragmented medial coronoidprocess was diagnosed and removed via arthrotomy or arthroscopy. The co-existence of a fragmented medial coronoid process was diagnosed correctly in only 13 cases (52 per cent) by radiography. In five of these cases with advanced osteoarthritis, the fragment was directly visible because of its dislocation. Compared with published information, the occurrence of ununited anconeal process with fragmented medial coronoid process is noted more frequently in the present study.

Author & Journal:Meyer-Lindenberg A, et al, J Small Anim Prac 2006 47:61-65

Influence of signalment on developing cranial cruciate rupture in dogs in the UK.

Summary:

To investigate risk factors associated with cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs.

Conclusion:

Frequency of cranial cruciate ligament rupture was 1·19% [95% confidence interval (CI) 1·02 to 1.36%]. West Highland white terriers (n=17), Yorkshire terriers (n=14) and Rottweilers (n=11) were at significantly increased risk of cranial cruciate ligament rupture(P≤0·002). Rottweilers were at five times greater risk compared with other pure breeds (OR 5·12, 95% CI 2·281 to 11·494, P<0·001), obesity quadrupled the risk of cranial cruciate ligament rupture (OR 3·756, 95% CI 1·659 to 8·502, P=0·001) and females were twice as likely to suffer cranial cruciate ligament failure compared to males (OR 2·054, 95% CI 1·467 to 2·877, P<0·001). Dogs less than two years old were statistically less likely to sustain cranial cruciate ligament rupture than dogs older than eight years (OR 0·246, 95% CI 0·127 to 0·477, P<0·001). There was no significant difference in median weights (in kilograms) of neutered dogs, compared to their entire counterparts in either the case group (P=0·994) or in the control group (P=0·630). There was also no significant difference in body condition (-underweight/normal weight/overweight/obese) of neutered versus entire dogs among the cases (P=0·243), or the controls (P=0·211).

Author & Journal:Adams P, et al, J Small Anim Prac 2011;52:347-352

Diagnostic imaging of canine elbow dysplasia: a review.

Summary:

Canine elbow dysplasia (CED) is a common developmental disorder of the cubital joint of dogs. CED is comprised of fragmented medial coronoid process (FMCP), ununited anconeal process (UAP), osteochondrosis (OC), and elbow incongruity. Multiple imaging modalities have been used to assess this complex of disorders and the severity of the pathologic changes. Radiography has been used as a surveying tool for assessment of CED for many years. Recently, alternate techniques and modalities have expanded our knowledge of CED and our clinical approach to this disorder. Nuclear medicine has been used to aid in localizing lameness to the elbow joint. Ultrasonography has proven helpful for imaging the soft tissue structures adjacent to the joint as well as superficial bone abnormalities, including visualization of FMCP. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are advanced imaging modalities that allow visualization of the elbow in multiple planes and into three-dimensional reconstructions, thus allowing lesions to be more accurately and comprehensively visualized. Assessment of elbow incongruity in particular has been benefitted by these advanced imaging techniques because of the importance of sagittal and dorsal plane imaging and reconstructions for accurately determining the relationships between radial and ulnar articular surfaces.

Conclusion:

Comparative studies using multiple techniques and imaging modalities with correlation to reference standards and patient outcomes will be vital to continued progress in this area.

Author & Journal:Cook CR, et al, Vet Surg 2009 38:144-153

Epidemiology of Cranial Cruciate Ligament Disease Diagnosis in Dogs Attending Primary-Care Veterinary Practices in England.

Summary:

To estimate the prevalence and risk factors for a diagnosis of cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease in dogs and to describe the management of such cases attending primary-care veterinary practices.

Conclusion:

Breed predispositions and demographic factors associated with diagnosis and case management of CCL disease in dogsidentified in this study can be used to help direct future research and management strategies.

Author & Journal:Taylor-Brown FE, et al, Vet Surg 2015;44:777-783

Computed tomography versus arthroscopy for detection of canine elbow dysplasia lesions.

Summary:

To describe associations between computed tomography (CT) and arthroscopy in dogs with elbow dysplasia lesions.

Conclusion:

Some CT signs are significantly associated with arthroscopic features of elbow dysplasia lesions in dogs; however, other CT signs were not associated with arthroscopic findings, and CT and arthroscopy can provide contradictory information. Osteophyte size is moderately correlated with cartilage erosion of the medial joint compartment.

Author & Journal:Moores AP, et al, Vet Surg 2008 37:390-398

COAST Development Group’s international consensus guidelines for the treatment of canine osteoarthritis

Summary:

This report describes consensus guidelines and recommendations for the treatment of canine osteoarthritis (OA) according to the “Canine OsteoArthritis Staging Tool excluding radiography” (COASTeR) stage of OA, by the COAST Development Group. The recommendations are based on evidence-based medicine and clinical experience and are proposed with international relevance in mind. The aim is to provide veterinarians with a practical reference to consolidated information and to support the development of patient-specific OA management protocols and informed treatment choices based on the stage of OA.

Conclusion:

Canine osteoarthritis is a complex disease and only animal healthcare professionals with personal knowledge of the patient can optimize care plans to meet the needs of the patient and requirements of the pet caregiver. This proposal for the first international guidelines for the treatment of canine osteoarthritis (OA), according to the COASTeR OA stage, is intended to provide a practical reference to evidence-based recommendations and expert opinion while leaving decision-making and the development of protocols appropriate to each dog’s specific situation, firmly in the hands of the consulting veterinarian. The authors encourage the use of the COAST staging tool and the COAST canine OA treatment guidelines proposal, and welcome feedback to help guide future updates and the optimization of both ([email protected]).

 

Author & Journal:Thibaut Cachon, Ole Frykman, John F. Innes, B. Duncan X. Lascelles, Masahiro Okumura, Pedro Sousa, Francesco Staffieri, Paulo V. Steagall, Bernadette Van Ryssen; Frontiers in Veterinary Science

Arthroscopic documentation of elbow cartilage pathology in dogs with clinical lameness without changes on standard radiographic projections.

Summary:

To document cartilage damage associated with elbow lameness in dogs without radiographic signs.

Conclusion:

Elbow pathology not associated with radiographic changes can be identified by CT and scintigraphy. Coronoid pathology is the most likely diagnosis.

Author & Journal:Punke JP, et al, Vet Surg 2009 38:209-212