Nutrition

Effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and body condition on serum concentrations of adipokines in healthy dogs

Summary:

To determine associations between serum concentrations of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids or body condition and serum concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glucose, or triglyceride in healthy dogs.

Conclusion:

Serum concentrations of docosapentaenoic acid were significantly positively associated with concentrations of adiponectin and leptin and negatively associated with concentrations of triglyceride. Serum concentrations of α-linolenic acid were significantly positively associated with concentrations of triglyceride. No significant associations were detected between serum concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid and any of the outcome variables. Percentage of body fat was significantly positively associated with concentrations of leptin, insulin, and triglyceride but was not significantly associated with adiponectin concentration. Age was positively associated with concentrations of leptin, insulin, and triglyceride and negatively associated with concentrations of adiponectin. Sex did not significantly affect serum concentrations for any of the outcome variables.

Author & Journal:Michal Mazaki-Tovi, DVM; Sarah K. Abood, DVM, PhD; Patricia A. Schenck, DVM, PhD, American Journal of Veterinary Research

A review of osteoarthritis and obesity: current understanding of the relationship and benefit of obesity treatment and prevention in the dog.

Summary:

Obesity is an increasingly important health problem for both man and dog. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a significant cause of pain and disability in both species. A link between obesity and OA has been established in man, though the exact mechanism of the relationship remains to be fully elucidated – current research supports both biomechanical and biochemical theories. There is good evidence (class I*) to support weight loss as an effective treatment for human knee OA. In the dog, the relationship is just beginning to be investigated.

Conclusion:

Further research could yield greater understanding of the pathophysiology of this relationship, perhaps identifying novel therapeutic targets. Confirmation and better understanding of the positive effect of treating and preventing obesity on symptoms and prevalence of OA is likely to be valuable in the campaign against canine obesity.

Author & Journal:Marshall WG, et al, Vet Comp Orthop Trauamatol 2009;22:339-345

Multicenter veterinary practice assessment of the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on osteoarthritis in dogs.

Summary:

To assess the effect of food containing high concentrations of fish oil omega-3 fatty acids and a low omega-6-omega-3 fattyacid ratio on clinical signs of osteoarthritis in dogs.

Conclusion:

Ingestion of the test food raised blood concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids and appeared to improve the arthritic condition in pet dogs with osteoarthritis.

Author & Journal:Roush JK, et al, J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010;236:59-66

Canine Hip Dysplasia: Reviewing the Evidence for Nonsurgical Management

Summary:

This systematic review of available evidence for nonsurgical management of hip dysplasia considered 14 articles and scored nonsurgical management including: activity restrictions, weight management, acupuncture, modulation of joint disease by polysulfated glycosaminoglycans, mesenchymal stem cell therapy, and extra corporeal shock wave therapy.

Conclusion:

“Weight management is an effective and important component of managing dogs with HD and associated osteoarthritis. Techniques that modulate the progression of joint disease may also be beneficial for treating dogs with HD. Further studies are needed to investigate other methods of managing HD such as hydrotherapy and physical rehabilitation.”

Author & Journal:Shaw, Kristin Kirkby et al, Veterinary Surgery, 2012

Effects of feeding a high omega-3 fatty acids diet in dogs with naturally occurring osteoarthritis

Summary:

The aim of this randomized, placebo‐controlled and double‐blinded trial was to compare the effect of a veterinary therapeutic diet (VTD) rich in omega‐3 fatty acids (omega‐3) from fish origin to a regular diet used as control (CTR) over a period of 13 weeks in dogs afflicted by naturally occurring osteoarthritis (OA). Thirty privately owned dogs were selected. Dogs had lameness confirmed by an orthopaedic examination, had stifle/hip OA and had locomotor disability based on the peak of the vertically oriented ground reaction force (PVF) measured using a force platform. At Baseline, all owners were asked to determine 2–5 activities of daily living that were the most impaired. Activities were scores (0–4) in accordance with severity using case‐specific outcome measures (CSOM). The PVF was also measured. Dogs (15/group) were then randomly assigned to receive either the CTR or the VTD. The CSOM was completed twice weekly. The recording of PVF was repeated at Week 7 and 13. The VTD‐fed dogs showed a significantly higher PVF at Week 7 (p < 0.001) and at Week 13 (p < 0.001) when compared to Baseline. From Baseline to Week 13, VTD‐fed dogs had a mean (± SD) change in PVF recording of 3.5 ± 6.8% of body weight (%BW) compared with 0.5 ± 6.1%BW (p = 0.211) in CTR‐fed dogs. This change in the primary outcome was consistent with an effect size of 0.5. Conversely, dogs fed the CTR did not show significant change in PVF measurements. At the end of the study, the CSOM was significantly decreased (p = 0.047) only in VTD fed dogs. In lame OA dogs, a VTD that contains high level of omega‐3 from fish origin improved the locomotor disability and the performance in activities of daily living. Such nutritional approach appears interesting for the management of OA.

Citing Literature

Conclusion:

This clinical trial evaluated the functional outcomes of lame privately owned dogs afflicted by OA follow- ing 13 weeks of feeding with a VTD containing high levels of omega-3. According to the primary study outcome (PVF), OA dogs were significantly improved (p < 0.001) 7 weeks after the beginning of a dietary modulation. The improvement in the functional disability was maintained through the 13 weeks duration, achieving a mean improvement of 3.5 ± 6.8%BW when compared to initial limb support (p < 0.001). When expressed relatively to Baseline (pre-treatment) values, the improvement corresponded to 6.9 ± 12.2%. The ameliorative effect of VTD was in accordance with previous trials performed by our group (Moreau et al., 2003, 2004, 2007) and others (Budsberg et al., 1999) using NSAID and powder of elk velvet antler. Moreover, the level of improvement represented an increment of 1.4 kg applied to the afflicted and painful limb for a dog of 36.7 kg. The effect size of the VTD improvement was 0.5, which was consistent with a moderate therapeutic effect (Cohen, 1992).

Author & Journal:M. Moreau, E. Troncy, J. R. E. del Castillo, C. Bédard, D. Gauvin, B. Lussier, J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl).

2014 AAHA weight management guidelines for dogs and cats.

Summary:

Communicating and implementing a weight management program for dogs and cats can be a challenging endeavor for veterinarians, but a rewarding one. An effective individualized weight loss program provides a consistent and healthy rate of weight loss to reduce risk of disease, prevent malnutrition, and improve quality of life. Weight loss is achieved with appropriate caloric restriction, diet selection, exercise, and strategies to help modify behavior of both the pet and client.

Conclusion:

This document offers guidelines and tools for the management of weight loss and long-term maintenance of healthy weight.

Author & Journal:Brooks D, et al, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2014; 50:1-11

A multicenter study of the effect of dietary supplementation with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids on carprofen dosage in dogs with osteoarthritis.

Summary:

To determine the effects of feeding a diet supplemented with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids on carprofen dosage in dogs with osteoarthritis.

Conclusion:

Results suggested that in dogs with chronic osteoarthritis receiving carprofen because of signs of pain, feeding a diet supplemented with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids may allow for a reduction in carprofen dosage.

Author & Journal:Fritsch DA, et al, J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010;236:535-539

Comparative Efficacy of Water and Land Treadmill Training for Overweight or Obese Adults

Summary:

Comparative Efficacy of Water and Land Treadmill Training for Overweight or Obese Adults. {Humans}

Purpose: No known previous research has been published to explore the efficacy of underwater treadmill (UWTM) exercise training for the obese. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare changes in physical fitness, body weight, and body composition in physically inactive, overweight, and obese adults after 12 wks of land treadmill (LTM) or UWTM training.

Conclusion:

UWTM and LTM training are equally capable of improving aerobic fitness and body composition in physically inactive overweight individuals, but UWTM training may induce increases in LBM.

Author & Journal:Greene, Nicholas, et al, Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2009

Multicenter veterinary practice assessment of the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on osteoarthritis in dogs

Summary:

To assess the effect of food containing high concentrations of fish oil omega-3 fatty acids and a low omega-6–omega-3 fatty acid ratio on clinical signs of osteoarthritis in dogs.

Conclusion:

Dogs fed the test food had a significantly higher serum concentration of total omega-3 fatty acids and a significantly lower serum concentration of arachidonic acid at 6, 12, and 24 weeks. According to owners, dogs fed the test food had a significantly improved ability to rise from a resting position and play at 6 weeks and improved ability to walk at 12 and 24 weeks, compared with control dogs.

Author & Journal:Roush JK, Dodd CE, Fritsch DA, Allen TA, Jewell DE, Schoenherr WD, Richardson DC, Leventhal PS, Hahn KA, Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association