Identifying Pain & OA

Qualitative study of owner perceptions of chronic pain in their dogs

Summary:

“To understand the experiences of owners of dogs with chronic pain and explore owner perceptions of their pets’ pain.”

Conclusion:

“By understanding the impact of chronic pain on dog owners and ap- preciating how owners perceive pain in their pets, veterinarians may be able to provide better care for patients and clients.“

Author & Journal:Davis, Kelly N., et al, Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 2019

Reliability and validity of a visual analogue scale used by owners to measure chronic pain attributable to osteoarthritis in their dogs

Summary:

“To assess validity and reliability for a visual analogue scale (VAS) used by owners to measure chronic pain in their osteoarthritic dogs.”

Conclusion:

“Although valid and reliable, the pain VAS was a poor tool for untrained owners because of poor face validity (ie, owners could not recognize their dogs’ behavior as signs of pain). Only after owners had seen pain diminish and then return (after starting and discontinuing NSAID use) did the VAS have face validity.”

Author & Journal:Hielm-Björkman, Anna K, et al, Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 2011

Evaluation of Agreement Between Numerical Rating Scales, Visual Analogue Scoring Scales, and Force Plate Gait Analysis in Dogs

Summary:

“To evaluate the accuracy of numerical rating (NRS) and visual analogue (VAS) scoring scales compared with force plate gait analysis and agreement between observers for each scoring scale.”

Conclusion:

“Subjective scoring scales do not replace force plate gait analysis. Agreement is low unless lameness is severe, and each observer uses an individually unique scale. Subjective scoring scales most accurately reflect force plate gait analysis when lameness is severe.”

Author & Journal:Quinn, Margaret M., et al, Veterinary Surgery, 2007

Accuracy of pressure plate kinetic asymmetry indices and their correlation with visual gait assessment scores in lame and nonlame dogs

Summary:

“To determine the accuracy of pressure plate kinetic asymmetry indices (ASIs) for diagnosis of unilateral hind limb lameness in dogs and their correlation with visual gait assessment (VGA) scores.”

Conclusion:

“Results indicated that ASIs of PVF and VI deter- mined via analysis of pressure plate measurements were reliable indicators of clinical lame- ness in dogs, but the ASI of PVP was not. The ASI of PCA is an interesting new variable for assessment of limb loading symmetry.”

Author & Journal:Oosterlinck, Maarten, et al, Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 2011

Assessing Chronic Pain In Dogs

Summary:

“Finding precise, reliable, and accurate measures of chronic pain in animals is a difficult effort. However, much research has gone into developing measurement methods to evaluate chronic pain in dogs (and, more recently, cats); this article reviews the pain scales currently available.”

Conclusion:

Details in linked article reviews the following pain scales: Helsinki Chronic Pain Index, Canine Brief Pain Index, Cincinnati Orthopedic Disability Index, Liverpool Osteoarthritis in Dogs.

Author & Journal:Epstein, Mark E., Today’s Veterinary Practice, 2013

Recognizing Behavioral Signs of Pain and Disease:

Summary:

“The aim of this article is to illustrate some examples of cases that might present as behavioral disorders but are in fact medical conditions.”

Conclusion:

“Observing and collecting complete histories of obvious and subtle changes in behavior will help veterinarians identify and define more precisely all of the signs associated with medical and painful conditions as well as those associated with behavioral disorders.”

Author & Journal:Frank, Diane, Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, 2014

Ability of the Canine Brief Pain Inventory to detect response to treatment in dogs with osteoarthritis

Summary:

To determine whether the Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI) can detect changes in dogs with osteoarthritis treated with an NSAID or a placebo.

Conclusion:

The CBPI was able to detect improvements in pain scores in dogs with osteoarthritis treated with an NSAID or a placebo. These results, in combination with previous reliability and validity testing, support the use of the CBPI to obtain quantifiable assessments from owners regarding the severity and impact of chronic pain and treatment for dogs with osteoarthritis.

Author & Journal:Climino Brown, Dorothy et al, Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 2008

Canine Orthopedic Outcome Measures Program: Where Are We Now?

Summary:

The overall goal of COMP was to advance veterinary orthopedic patient care by providing and supporting mechanisms for all clinicians, researchers, industry partners, and regulatory bodies to produce, assess, and implement the highest evidentiary value data for evaluation of safety and efficacy of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. At project initiation, we estimated that it would take more than 1 million dollars to recruit key personnel, design appropriate studies, produce data, and create, validate and implement the instruments(s). After 6 years of intensive work in all of these areas, a tremendous amount of progress has been made. This editorial summarizes the COMP’s efforts and results, and suggests a way forward to our ultimate goal of optimal patient-centered, evidence based care in veterinary orthopedics.”

Conclusion:

“The good news is that we now have a number of excellent options for effectively measuring outcomes in clinical and translational studies in dogs. The bad news is that we now have a number of different options to sort through to determine what is optimal for each study. So what should you do?” Click the link for the full article and listed solutions from the author.

Author & Journal:Cook, James L., Veterinary Surgery, 2014

Psychometric testing of the Helsinki chronic pain index by completion of a questionnaire in Finnish by owners of dogs with chronic signs of pain caused by osteoarthritis

Summary:

“To determine the validity, reliability, and sensitivity of a published chronic pain index by completion of a questionnaire in Finnish by owners of dogs with chronic signs of pain caused by osteoarthritis.”

Conclusion:

“The Finnish version of the HCPI provided a valid, reliable, and responsive tool for assessment of response to treatment in dogs with osteoarthritis.”

Author & Journal:Hielm-Björkman, Anna K., et al, American Journal of Veterinary Research, 2009

Assessing repeatability and validity of a visual analogue scale questionnaire for use in assessing pain and lameness in dogs

Summary:

“To develop a visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaire that is repeatable and valid for use in assessing pain and lameness in dogs.”

Conclusion:

“The VAS questionnaire was repeatable and valid for use in assessing the degree of mild to moderate lameness in dogs.”

Author & Journal:Hudson, Jonathon, et al, American Journal of Veterinary Research, 2004